DIPLOMA APPAREL DESIGNING & FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT
The apparel industry is a broad base international system of merchandising producing and financing. It involves sourcing textile and finding from international market merchandising product lines manufacturing related products and marketing finished cause to retail and ultimate consumer.
Over the port 150 years the apparel business has evolved from custom fitting and assembling of individual hand garments to the merchandized automated and distribution of ready to wear in the world market compared to any other product lines apparel manufactured to any product lines apparel manufacturing reminds labor intensive because of variety of product calories the endless change in materials and styling the difficulty in handling goods manual production and operations are usually needed.
Advancement in technology has increased functions and capabilities of textile material and healing with constantly changing styles limit the degree of automation for many production operations the apparel industry is major business structure spinning the globe.
In an apparel industry firstly fabrics inspectional storage, fabric inspection, Sampling, Pattern making, Spreading, Cutting, Numbering, Sorting, Bundling, sewing, Quality checking, Finishing and Packing.
These are the several processes done to produce the knitted garment. These all process is done according to the buyer order.
Garment and textile industry is 2nd most important industry in the world. Garment manufacturing is an elaborating process like any other industry in fact it’s even much more complicated since the entire production depends only on remain resources and an the machinery.
We went to small scale industry for the industrial visit and the industrial name is MASS FASHIONS. In this industry shirt is manufactured and also sometimes piece work also done.
They have more and enough infrastructures to stitch shirt the fabric trimming, threads and other raw material are brought from Bangalore. The cutting was done by Basavaraj owner of the industry, cut pieces are equally segregate kept in tray and distributed for workers.
Around 450 shirts were stitched in one day and the workers get Rs.40/- (Forty Rupees) per shirt the working time is 10:00am to 5:00pm nearly 7 hours. Labour cost is depend upon complicated pattern and if any changes for collar, cuff, yoke, stitching was done in very easy method because they have more experience.
Mr. Basavaraj Sir the owner of MASS FASHION earlier he was working as trainer in Bangalore and also he worked in ATDC is shivamogga for 10 years.
Material requirement, Spreading, Cutting, Sewing, Finishing, Packing and dispatching all these things are done by proprietor of industry.
Different sections in Industry are:-
- Store and Pattern Making
- Laying and Marker Plan
- Cutting and Bundling
- Sewing Section
- Finishing Section and Packing
In MASS FACHION they uses to check the quality of fabric and then they used to order the fabric in Bangalore according to the order. Mr. Basavaraj the owner of this industry receives the order for fabric and other materials which required for the manufacturing.
The fabric stores department is centralized in apparel industry and all the fabric comes to this unit first from the supplied and audited here and kept until it is distributed to other units.
The main responsibility of this department is to store all the raw material necessary to produce garments this department is sub divided into three section.
The store keeper follows a strong and appropriate working procedure their work process flow is given below.
Working flow chart of store department in Garment industry
Inspection of Product
Paper pattern in MASS FASHION is done by master his name is Basavaraj, he is a person of 10 years experience in this garment industry.
- He this section
- In this section that standard size like S, M, L, XL, XXL.
- He uses to make the paper pattern in thick sheets like card board sheet.
- He use to preserve it in a polythin chart.
- We have to know about what is
- Patterns are usually made of paper and are sometimes made of materials like paper board or card board if they.
- In sewing a pattern in the template from which the parts of a garment are traced onto fabric before cut out and assembled.
- It makes the work easily.
- We get different size of paper pattern.
- Paper pattern is done to avoid the mistakes.
- It is useful in garment industry, collage tailors institutes etc.
Laying and manner planning:-
In bulk cutting a member of fabric plies are placed on the cutting table the whole number of fabric plies that is spread on the table and cut a time is called as lay.
A lay is also called as ‘Cut’, A unique number is given to lay. A lay can be made by the any number of fabric layer it may be single layer or 100 layer 200 layer its depending of fabric thickness. A lay is shown in the following image on the top of the manner is made using paper pattern in case manual marker making.
A format or Slip used to record lay details is known as lay slip. Lay slip is also known as lay order in the lay length a number of markers and number of plies spread from each fabric roll etc. are recorded later the fabric left out such as and bits and end loss is calculated using lay slip data spreading time to make a particular lay can be also calculated from the lay slip (provided spreader record spreading start time and spreading time of each fabric roll.
In the lay each fabric ply is called as a layer lay length the length of the fabric ply in lay is called as lay length the lay length is planned according to the marker length.
After complete spreading of the fabric use for a certain height of the lay. Height is maintained while fabrics are spread on the table to allow the cutting machine on the cutting machine secondly the number of fabric plies a lay depend on the fabric thickness.
Marker planning is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern places for a particular style of fabric and size distribution it is the process of plotting all the pattern pieces for all the sizes of a particular styles of garment on a thin piece of paper.
In a garment industry marker planning is done by two method.
- Manual Method
- Computerized Method
But now a day’s mostly computer aided system are used for marker planning but still on cases where there are complicated patterns on the fabric manual marker planning method is more preferred.
In method of marker planning, Marker Planning is done by an efficient marker plan. If depends on the marker plans efficiency and expertise that how efficiently marker planning done.
Marker planning is one of the most important costs saving stages in the process of garment manufacture. Maker planning has initial costs should be preferred because of time soving and as id gives accurate and fault free marker planes the more the fabric saved the more will be the profit margin of the industry.
Marker planning is the most useful process to drain the pattern pieces over a thin marker paper. The manual method of marker making which is done by the hand of people with the own planning it is known as manual method of marker planning it is save the production time and costs.
Cutting department section
Cutting quality is most important to maintain the quality is finished product the various factors in cutting effects the fabric such as fraid edges fuzzy surface ply to ply friction, single edge, fusion notches drills etc.
Cutting department is one of the most essential sections for garments manufacturing in the apparel industry. The fabric cutting is started offer completing the fabric spreading.
In MASS FASHION unit the fabric is layed and remove the creases with to help of scale. The edges of the lays are also used during cutting of the mass fusion industry. He cut the small and big components with the help of straight knife only.
There are different types of cutting machines used to desire i.e.,
- Hand Shears
- Round Knife
- Band Knife
- Straight Knife
Hand shears are un-normally used when cutting single double ply. Here the lower blade of the shears passes under the plates and upper cuts the fabric.According to the line and shape.
Manual fabric cutting method:- Cutting process is done by using knife, scissor, drill etc.,
Knife is placed in the head of the most used cutting methods garments industry.
It is used for bulk cutting. The elements of straight knife consists of a base plate usually on rollers upon easy movement an upright of standard carrying a straight vertical blade which cuts the fabric is an electric motor is fixed an top side with a handle for easy movement usually before fabric this base plate slides under the glazed paper.
Straight Knife Parts:-
- Base Plate
- Terminal Block
- Cross Head Assay
- Clamp Washes
- Knife Clamp Stand
- Sharper Pulley
- Supply Right
- Plley Spring
- On or off Switch
- Life Handle
It will cut 150 to 250 layers at a time it has very sharp edges quick is fine fabric cutting.
Bundling is a packing method used to greatly reduce wrinkles and creases in cutting section all the components of the different size garments are cut at a time offer that the components are separated according to the size type is color of the garments and the components of the single garment are separated for easy recongnizing in the sewing section.
Each bundle and marked with bundle number style name size number and quality of pieces in the bundle at this stage cutting are ready to send to production line for pieces stitching. Bundling workers also carry out important quality control functions. To inspect the garment pieces for cutting problems fabric irregularities or any other problems that may have occurred in production thus fast.
In MASS FASHION unit bundling is done based on size wise the different sizes are like S, M, L, XL, XXL of shirts.
No confusion of mixing up of parts. They will divide the components based on size and color of the fabric.
Bundle tracking is possible to identify to solve problems.
Sewing is our of the important process in apparel making most of such industrial sewing is done by industrial sewing machine the basic process of sewing involves fastening of dairies.
- In this process bundle of garment parts known form operation to operations it also called as material handling system.
- Cut components are bundled and distribution to sewing section.
- Bundles stickers are attached to cost component.
- One operator performs only one task of a time.
- Bundles are handle in trolley starkest boxes etc.
- Stitching will be done in this process
- Yoke Attaching for Back part.
- Size Labeling and Wash labeling
- Front Placket Joining and Pocket Join.
- Shoulder Join
- Sleeve Joining and placket
- Cuff joining
- Collar joining
- Bottom folding
The first assemble front and back components for sewing. Then the next person to stitch yoke part in five minutes next received to another person stitched button hole and button fixing stand and pocket than next person to received the components and to stitch joining the shoulder path after to received mark the center point of sleeves because to identify to center point to the sleeve than to stitched it finally button folding was done and rechecked once and send finishing section.
This stitching process is used different types of machines
- Single Needle lock Stitch Machine.
- Double Needle lock Stitch Machine.
- Flat Lock Machine.
- Feed off Arm Machine.
- Fusing Machine
- Chain Stitch Machine
- Button Hole Machine
- Button Fixing Machine
- Over Lock Machine
- Four Needle Lock Stitch Machine
- Bar Tak Machin
Single Needle Lock Stitch Machine:-
It is power operated with fully rotated shuttles. This is an industrial model machine used generally in heavy work speed conditions one can stitch a lock stitch in this machine which is designed for single needle sewing the same technique is used in double lock needle stitch machine with single loaded double pointed needles.
Double Needle Lock Stitch Machine:-
There types of machine are generally used in stitching of knifed fabrics lick T-Shirts Baniyans, Kids Wear, Sports Wear etc., this gives a good finishing in side joining and button folding neck finishing. This is mainly used in apparel industry. Because of saving time and energy this is used to stitch where the parallel stitch is are necessary.
Flat Lock Stitch Machine:-
It works similar to over lock machine. It is used generally in stitching of knifed fabrics. It is looked used stitch and not as from stitch.
Feed off Arm Machine:-
It is used a lapped seam has to loe closed in such ways that the garment part becomes lick a tube and these are commonly used in tube and they are commonly used in jeans production where the outside legs seam in the sequence of construction.
It is used for fusing of collar cuff and button hole stand without air bubbles between two layers.
Chain Stitch Machine:-
It works on the principle similar to the principle crocteling. It makes series of loops pulled through one another it does of leaving the bobbin and is used to do many of the operation that are down a lock stitch machine.
Over Lock Machine:-
This is the types of sewing machine is used for the finishing purpose of the garment if sews over the edges for 2 piece of cloth like hemming are over locking it prevents the cut edges fraying in the garment.
It is done offer inspecting the stitched garment if includes labeling pressing removing of extra thread, washing etc., for neat finishing and export foreign particular was to removed and then checked system moning is necessary for the neat finishing of the garment.
This section is divided into three different processes like trimming, pressing and practicing and packing in this section the find inspecting of garments is done section in cleargers checks toners process extra thread are cut clalte neavcing are removed and the garment is completely checked house equipment to speed packing.
The boxes of labeled with address and then moved by trolley aor conveyor belt to be loaded on the delivery truck and sent to the retailer.
On time deliveres are extremely important to prevent cancellation of order on the basis of reliable product and delivery standards a manufacture build and keeps a sepitution for dependability that accompanies it reputation for innovative styling.
- Sleeve Joining and Placket
- Cuff Joining
- Collar Joining
- Bottom Folding
They first assemble the front and back components for sewing than the next person to stitch yoke part in 5 minutes next received to another person to stitched button hole and button fixing stand and pocket then next person to receive the components and to joining the shoulder part. After to received and to mark the center point of sleeve because to identify the center point of the sleeve then to stitched it that to join placket and cuff then another person for damages stains and stitching in this process the garment is checked it the brand label and washing instruction label is stitched properly. After complete checking.
The garments are send for further process that is pressing section in charge ironers and sew helps head the pressing in this section the garments are ironed neatly without an wrinkles on it and folded neatly without an wrinkles on it folded to the specific to the specific size after this it is send to next processing section.
There are different types of Machinery used finish the different components like.
- Button Hole Making Machines
- Button Fixing Machines
- Thread sucking
- Blind or Hemming Machine
- Feed of arm Machine
Bar taking machine and also will use some finishing tools and pressing tools.
- Seam Rippers
- Iron Table
- Pressing Stand
- Button Hole Making Machine:-
The buttons is essentially a zigzag lock stitch machine with automatic to control the length and width of the button hole and cut is open the operators must be carefully do inside in the fabric is exactly makes the button to move easily.
- Button Fixing Machine:-
The button placement is marked by tiny holes pushed on the fabric. Button is placed in holdes when moves the button to forth white the needle sews.
- Thread Sucking Machine:-
This machine cones equipped with a large poly carbonate viewing glass there is an adjustable section claneper for different types of fabrics.
- Label Fixing Machine:-
Here the brand label will be fused of the back near the collar and care labels will be attached at the side seams of the shirt.
- Blind and Hemming Machine
These types of machine are generally used to finish neck collar and above waist garment there machine finishes the wore needles accurately and neatly quickly. This machine is not used for ordinary stitching.
- Feed of Arm Machine:-
It is a machine design to work on tubular on fabric which is design with feed of arm bed and generally used where lapped seam are snow seam is needle for tabular fabric.
- Bar Tacking Machine:-
Bar tracking is generally done in fly points pocket points at a right angle to give neat support to the edges to finishing is done at a right angle to the first stitches and the numbers of stitches.
It is used to cut the thread which sewing a garment and also used to cut lace ribbons etc.
- Seam Rippers:-
They are very handy for picking seam and also used to cut button holes.
- Ironing Table:-
It should be 36” height and 27”width and 5” long so that sufficiently long sustive eerily pressed on a blanket and press is done.
- Steam Pressing:-
Steam pressing has been made only for pressing on wooden tables this press contains small holes place which define steam.
Packing system is an organized set of machines including several technologies as commodities for convenient storage or transportation. The system includes packing material and machine to perform filling forming cleaning wrapping sealing and packing operation.
Based on the operation the packing system are divided are
- Automated Packing System
- Semi Automated Packing System
- Manual Packing System
Different items used for packing are as follows.
- Collar Support
- Butter Ply
- Ball Beaded Pins
- Back Support (Cardboard)
- Tissue Paper
- Cello Tape
- Poly Bogs
- Hang Tags or Price Tickets
- Plastic Bullets
- Gun Tapes
- Carton Box
- Metal Clips
- Plastic Clips with teeth and without teeth
- Wrapping Patti Role
- Collar Support
Collar Patti made of cardboard tissue paper used has packing material for a stand pack shirt Collar Patti is placed belong the collar for stiffness of the collar general size.
- Hang Tag
Hang tag are printed according to the specification this garment packed is poly bag are arranged in cartons according to buyers.
- Poly Bags
Poly Bags are used packing shirt different types of poly bags are used according to size standards.
- Bags with Clip
- Hip and Geared Bag
- Self Sealing Bag
- Hang’s Bag
- Plain Bag
- Brass Pins
Brass pins as purl head pins are available in pocket of which tower brand and bell brand.
- Carton Box
Carton box used for packing and secured with the help of rope are cello tapes.
Dispatching refers to the control of process of operation planning giving apliation order are controlling operations in the manufacturing size.
The packet garment is dispatch ate checked includes by tendy our continues to ships.
At distribution ware houses garments are checked for quality and then divided into grow account to style seam and color and put into stock a storage area where they may huge on lucky is stacked on shelve standard contains are suitable for transporting readymade garments as they providing maximum protection against creasing dust and dust garment container have buy for having up items of clothing an hanger and hangers are scooted be special clip horizontally open able certain is locked swine the done and the inside after the land transporter to shipment is done.
Purchases order forms are becomes standardized which makes as designing and shipping were efficient large orders and orders from important regular customers are filled first merchandise is pulled from in stock to fill orders in the called style size and color.
Garments are folded into shipping boxes and market with the means of they partition specified by the sector bayed manufactures are using robotic qulamated waste to receive and join the side seam with the help of feed of machine finally bottom folding was done and re-checked once and send to finishing section.